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University of San Clemente - Call Today (949) 872-1602
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University of San Clemente
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SEMINARY SCHOOL:
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- Employment Law Training Seminars
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SCHOOL OF BUSINESS:
- Food Safety Manager Training
- NEW Build Your Business Plan
- NEW Build Your Marketing Plan
- Social Media 101
SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES:
- ESL (English as a Second Language)

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SCHOOL OF HEALTH SCIENCE:
- FREE Weight Loss Through Nutrution
- Free Bootcamp
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SCHOOL OF INVENTION:

SCHOOL OF COMPUTING:

SCHOOL OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY:

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SCHOOL OF LEARNING:
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SCHOOL OF COMMUNICATIONS:
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SCHOOL OF INCREDOMICS:
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SCHOOL OF MINING:
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A Mixed Method Design ( 81,402 )
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The Importance Of English As A Second Language ( 107,362 )
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Parent's Involvement in Children's Education ( 147,180 )
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How to Find the Volume of a Cube,rectangular Solid Or Cylinder ( 179,188 )
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Three Types of Fossil Fuels ( 303,212 )
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Letter Writing: Write Formal & Informal Letters & Notes ( 377,410 )
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Home Schooling Advantages Vs. Disadvantages ( 56,480 )
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History of Education, Teacher Training, Teaching, Teachers ( 48,034 )
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Setting Boundaries in the Workplace ( 16,862 )
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Top Orange County Universities, Colleges and Schools
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What is Good Teaching ? ( 3,362 )
 

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"Many employers are working their employees harder, not smarter.
- David Coates"

"The magic formula that successful businesses have discovered is to
treat customers like guests and
employees like people.
--Thomas J. Peters"

"In the end, all business operations
can be reduced to three words: people, product and profits. Unless you've got a good team, you can't do much with the other two. --Lee Iacocca"

 

 

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Welcome To
University of San Clemente

The State of The Art Learning Adventure

Are you looking for a learning, training, or degree experience that will provide you with applicable knowledge instead of worthless information.


University of San Clemente Provides Quality Education and Training

Three ways University of San Clemente gives you what you need

Workshops and Seminars
Learn a new skill, accomplish a specific task, or gain a foundational knowledge base in a matter of hours through the valuable knowledge and understanding provided in a seminar or in a longer session like a workshop.
Professional Training and Certification
Spend a day reviewing the information, take the qualification tests, and renew or receive the certification that you professionally require through the training and certication program.
Online and In-Person Accredited Classes
Prepare for your career through the degree program. Study in-person at the University or take courses at your pace through the online offerings.

Getting the right education or training in a timely manner can be as easy as 1, 2, 3. Contact us now to discuss the options right for you.
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Arts Biological Sciences Business | M.B.A. Education Engineering Humanities Information & Computer Sciences Interdisciplinary Studies Law Medicine Nursing Science Pharmaceutical Sciences Physical Sciences Public Health Social Ecology Social Sciences Summer Session

"BEST TRAINING I EVER ATTENDED!"

"Absolutely the best training I have ever attended. My professor was a fabulous instructor. His cutting edge knowledge and information made learning fun. Time flew by, left me wanting more."

Workshops and Seminars
Click on the highlighted titles below for detailed information.

WORKSHOPS

Workshops involve extensive learning and study. Several hours of classroom activity is common. Each workshop has structure and may include presentations, notes, and a workbook. Workshops are practical, effective, completely current and comprehensiv as well as.professionally rewarding and stimulating. Instructors include outstanding faculty with prominent credentials who are also excellent presenters. Each workshop is rigorous, thorough...and enjoyable.

Workshop Offerings Listing
A comprehensive listing of current workshops is located through the click-able link in the title above.

Examples of continuing business offerings are featured below.

Build Your Business Plan (BYBP)
Have you created a business plan? Is your business plan up-to-date? If you have never created one or if your plan is more than a year old without being reviewed or your business or business methods have changed, you need to do a business plan.

We have our own emphasis on building a business plan, focused on answering the questions that help you to create the plan that says what you want it to say and does what you want it to accomplish. Our method will provide you and your company with the unique document specific to your company needs.

Build Your Marketing Plan (BYMP)
The best marketing and sales efforts happen when there is a concept and an idea, a plan, as to how to proceed.

Your marketing plan spells out how you bring your offerings to clients and customers in an organized fashion. You do this because marketing is communicating and educating, not just advertising.

Build Your Short-Term Plan (BYSP)
You will step through a long-term view that will then break into short-term goals. Your workshop instructor will assist you to identify the steps that will take your business from where it is now to where you want it to be. In the process, you will learn how long that is going to take.

SEMINARS

Seminars provide a comprehensive foundation in critical subjects. Often presented in shorter time periods, seminars grow a knowledge base one topic at a time. Seminars are designed for both novice and experienced professionals and are taught by knowledgeable and experienced faculty.

Seminar Offerings Listing
A comprehensive listing of current seminars is located through the click-able link in the title above.

Examples of continuing business offerings are featured below.

Business Seminar Examples
Business seminars are learning events that build your knowledge base. They are available at low cost and may be free if sponsored. This opportunity to learn is accompanied by an opportunity to network and interact with others.

QUESTIONS ON WORKSHOPS AND SEMINARS???
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Professional Training and Certification
Click on the highlighted titles below for detailed information.

CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS
More than a workshop or seminar, Professional Training and Certification involves a course where professional qualification, documentation, accreditation, or authorization are provided. The extended nature of the training may involve hands-on as well as presentation or informational instruction; testing the knowledge you have acquired through this course work will qualify you to receive the appropriate certificate.

Offering examples may include but not be limited to the following examples:
CPR Certification
Food Health and Safety Certification
EMT Certification
Safe Driving Instruction
Hospitality Staff Training
Wait Staff Training
Companion Care Training and Certification Testing

A listing of present University of San Clemente Professional Training and Certification offerings are located here:
Professional Training and Certification

 

QUESTIONS ON PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION???
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Online and In-Person Classes
Click on the highlighted titles below for detailed information.

UNIVERSITY OF SAN CLEMENTE COURSES AND PROGRAMS
University of San Clemente provides course, classes, and degreed programs to fit a variety of needs and disciplines. A complete listing of program areas are located here:
Program Study Areas

ONLINE CLASSES
Designed to teach as you learn learn best, online instruction is an effective way to gain knowledge and earn a degree. Class work in specific courses and programs are structured to present required material in a manner that is effective. You learn at your pace within a specified time period, accomplishing both your goals and the course work at the rate that serves you best.

A listing of online course offerings and degree program online offerings are located here:
Online Courses

IN-PERSON CLASSES
Some courses and testing are best provided in-person. esigned to teach as you learn learn best, online instruction is an effective way to gain knowledge and earn a degree. Class work in specific courses and programs are structured to present required material in a manner that is effective. You learn at your pace within a specified time period, accomplishing both your goals and the course work at the rate that serves you best.

A listing of online course offerings and degree program online offerings are located here:
In-Person Courses

QUESTIONS ON ONLINE AND IN-PERSON CLASSES???
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(949) 872-1602

PICTURES FROM UNIVERSITY OF SAN CLEMENTE
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MOST IMPORTANT FEATURES:

Structure
All offerings are comprised of planned and organized instruction which is presented over the specified and defined period of time. Participants are encouraged to register for the entire programs, workshops, or courses, however registrations for only one or two of the offerings are accepted.

Practical Information
All instruction and reference materials were developed so they can be applied in the everyday workplace. Participants learn the the course and can apply it within their own experience.

Extensive Materials
The provided learning and materials are specially prepared for the offerings and are current. The materials are provided to participants and students serve as valuable reference manuals .

Certificate Awarded
As may be pertinent, a Certificate may be awarded when a participant completes their work and passes the testing. The certificates may be mailed after the end of the program.

Instructors
All seminar, workshop, and course instructors are leaders and are qualified experts who have extraordinary backgrounds, extensive practical experience, and a demonstrated ability to teach the material in an interesting manner.

Personal Interaction
Faculty members encourage questions from participants. All your questions will be answered during the ample time provided during sessions, at breaks, lunches and after the sessions. The collegial atmosphere fosters the sharing of ideas and experiences among participants.

Enhanced Career Performance
Participants tell us that this program improves on-the-job and in-life effectiveness, and increases capacity for career and personal growth.

 
 


REVIEWS & Testimonials:
What People are Saying About University of San Clemente...

"EXCEEDED MY EXPECTATIONS!"

"I was extremely happy with the workshop presenters. The information exceeded my expectations and the other participants were very helpful in sharing their experiences. I signed up for this course after researching on the Internet. I reviewed a lot of different programs and determined the information was the most thorough and comprehensive."

"EXTREMELY IMPRESSED!"

"My instructor was extremely dynamic in her presentation skills and seemed to take a vested interest in our learning the information. I was very impressed with her background and appreciated hearing her personal experiences which help to bring the information to life!"

"WELL WORTH TIME AND MONEY!"

"Both instructors were very informative and presented very well. The knowledge I gained was great and the interaction was outstanding. Well worth the time and money."

 

Any Questions? Please give us a call: (949) 872-1602
Please let us know what your questions are, how we can help you. Remember, we are only a phone call away.

 

 
 
 
ABOUT A UNIVERSITY
Degree ceremony at the University of Oxford. The Pro-Vice-Chancellor in MA gown and hood, Proctor in official dress and new Doctors of Philosophy in scarlet full dress. Behind them, a bedel, a Doctor and Bachelors of Arts and Medicine graduate.

A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. The word "university" is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars."

History

Representation of a university lecture in the 1350s

Definition

The original Latin word "universitas" refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc." At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialised "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members. The original Latin word referred to degree-granting institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, and from where the institution spread around the world. For non-related educational institutions of antiquity which did not stand in the tradition of the university and to which the term is only loosely and retrospectively applied, see ancient higher-learning institutions.

Academic freedom

An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the first university. The University of Bologna adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom". This is now widely recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation. The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world.

Medieval universities

Area above the Old University of Bologna buildings, founded in 1088

European higher education took place for hundreds of years in Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (Scholae monasticae), in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century AD. The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church, usually from cathedral schools or by papal bull as studia generalia (n.b. The development of cathedral schools into universities actually appears to be quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception — see Leff, Paris and Oxford Universities), later they were also founded by Kings (University of Naples Federico II, Charles University in Prague, Jagiellonian University in Kraków) or municipal administrations (University of Cologne, University of Erfurt). In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries.

The first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna (1088), the University of Paris (c. 1150, later associated with the Sorbonne), the University of Oxford (1167), the University of Palencia (1208), the University of Cambridge (1209), the University of Salamanca (1218), the University of Montpellier (1220), the University of Padua (1222), the University of Naples Federico II (1224), the University of Toulouse (1229), the University of Siena (1240).

The University of Bologna began as a law school teaching the ius gentium or Roman law of peoples which was in demand across Europe for those defending the right of incipient nations against empire and church. Bologna’s special claim to Alma Mater Studiorum[clarification needed] is based on its autonomy, its awarding of degrees, and other structural arrangements, making it the oldest continuously operating institution independent of kings, emperors or any kind of direct religious authority.

Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a medieval manuscript.

The conventional date of 1088, or 1087 according to some, records when a certain Irnerius commences teaching Emperor Justinian’s 6th century codification of Roman law, the Corpus Iuris Civilis, recently discovered at Pisa. Lay students arrived in the city from many lands entering into a contract to gain this knowledge, organising themselves into ‘Learning Nations’ of Hungarians, Greeks, North Africans, Arabs, Franks, Germans, Iberians etc. The students “had all the power … and dominated the masters”.

In Europe, young men proceeded to university when they had completed their study of the trivium–the preparatory arts of grammar, rhetoric and dialectic or logic–and the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. (See Degrees of the University of Oxford for the history of how the trivium and quadrivium developed in relation to degrees, especially in anglophone universities).

Universities became popular all over Europe, as rulers and city governments began to create them to satisfy a European thirst for knowledge, and the belief that society would benefit from the scholarly expertise generated from these institutions. Princes and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefit of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to this understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts.

The rediscovery of Aristotle's works - more than 3000 pages of it would eventually be translated - fuelled a spirit of inquiry into natural processes that had already begun to emerge in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that these works represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. Richard Dales, for instance, calls the discovery of Aristotle's works “a turning point in the history of Western thought." After Aristotle re-emerged, a community of scholars, primarily communicating in Latin, accelerated the process and practice of attempting to reconcile the thoughts of Greek antiquity, and especially ideas related to understanding the natural world, with those of the church. The efforts of this “scholasticism” were focused on applying Aristotelian logic and thoughts about natural processes to biblical passages and attempting to prove the viability of those passages through reason. This became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students.

The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, although the northern (primarily Germany, France and Great Britain) and southern universities (primarily Italy) did have many elements in common. Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures, disputations and examinations. Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophy, and metaphysics; while Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicenna were used for medicine. Outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter. Italian universities focused on law and medicine, while the northern universities focused on the arts and theology. There were distinct differences in the quality of instruction in these areas which were congruent with their focus, so scholars would travel north or south based on their interests and means. There was also a difference in the types of degrees awarded at these universities. English, French and German universities usually awarded bachelor's degrees, with the exception of degrees in theology, for which the doctorate was more common. Italian universities awarded primarily doctorates. The distinction can be attributed to the intent of the degree holder after graduation – in the north the focus tended to be on acquiring teaching positions, while in the south students often went on to professional positions. The structure of Northern Universities tended to be modeled after the system of faculty governance developed at the University of Paris. Southern universities tended to be patterned after the student-controlled model begun at the University of Bologna.

Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasahs became universities. George Makdisi and others, however, argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Courtenay et al. partially critique this view by stating similarities between madrasahs and southern European universities. Other scholars regard the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.

Many scholars (including Makdisi) have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the religious madrasahs in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, and the Middle East (during the Crusades). Other scholars see this argument as overstated.

Early modern universities

During the Early Modern period (approximately late 1400s to 1800), the universities of Europe would see a tremendous amount of growth, productivity and innovative research. At the end of the Middle Ages, about 400 years after the first university was founded, there were twenty-nine universities spread throughout Europe. In the 15th century, twenty-eight new ones were created, with another eighteen added between 1500 and 1625. This pace continued until by the end of the 18th century there were approximately 143 universities in Europe and Eastern Europe, with the highest concentrations in the German Empire (34), Italian countries (26), France (25), and Spain (23) – this was close to a 500% increase over the number of universities toward the end of the Middle Ages. This number does not include the numerous universities that disappeared, or institutions that merged with other universities during this time. It should be noted that the identification of a university was not necessarily obvious during the Early Modern period, as the term is applied to a burgeoning number of institutions. In fact, the term “university” was not always used to designate a higher education institution. In Mediterranean countries, the term studium generale was still often used, while “Academy” was common in Northern European countries.

17th century classroom at the University of Salamanca

The propagation of universities was not necessarily a steady progression, as the seventeenth century was rife with events that adversely affected university expansion. Many wars, and especially the Thirty Years' War, disrupted the university landscape throughout Europe at different times. War, plague, famine, regicide, and changes in religious power and structure often adversely affected the societies that provided support for universities. Internal strife within the universities themselves, such as student brawling and absentee professors, acted to destabilize these institutions as well. Universities were also reluctant to give up older curricula, and the continued reliance on the works of Aristotle defied contemporary advancements in science and the arts. This era was also affected by the rise of the nation-state. As universities increasingly came under state control, or formed under the auspices of the state, the faculty governance model (begun by the University of Paris) became more and more prominent. Although the older student-controlled universities still existed, they slowly started to move toward this structural organization. Control of universities still tended to be independent, although university leadership was increasingly appointed by the state.

Although the structural model provided by the University of Paris, where student members are controlled by faculty “masters,” provided a standard for universities, the application of this model took at least three different forms. There were universities that had a system of faculties whose teaching was centralized around a very specific curriculum; this model tended to train specialists. There was a collegiate or tutorial model based on the system at University of Oxford where teaching and organization was decentralized and knowledge was more of a generalist nature. There were also universities that combined these models, using the collegiate model but having a centralized organization.

Early Modern universities initially continued the curriculum and research of the Middle Ages: natural philosophy, logic, medicine, theology, mathematics, astronomy (and astrology), law, grammar and rhetoric. Aristotle was prevalent throughout the curriculum, while medicine also depended on Galen and Arabic scholarship. The importance of humanism for changing this state-of-affairs cannot be underestimated. Once humanist professors joined the university faculty, they began to transform the study of grammar and rhetoric through the studia humanitatis. Humanist professors focused on the ability of students to write and speak with distinction, to translate and interpret classical texts, and to live honorable lives. Other scholars within the university were affected by the humanist approaches to learning and their linguistic expertise in relation to ancient texts, as well as the ideology that advocated the ultimate importance of those texts. Professors of medicine such as Niccolò Leoniceno, Thomas Linacre and William Cop were often trained in and taught from a humanist perspective as well as translated important ancient medical texts. The critical mindset imparted by humanism was imperative for changes in universities and scholarship. For instance, Andreas Vesalius was educated in a humanist fashion before producing a translation of Galen, whose ideas he verified through his own dissections. In law, Andreas Alciatus infused the Corpus Juris with a humanist perspective, while Jacques Cujas humanist writings were paramount to his reputation as a jurist. Philipp Melanchthon cited the works of Erasmus as a highly influential guide for connecting theology back to original texts, which was important for the reform at Protestant universities. Galileo Galilei, who taught at the Universities of Pisa and Padua, and Martin Luther, who taught at the University of Wittenberg (as did Melanchthon), also had humanist training. The task of the humanists was to slowly permeate the university; to increase the humanist presence in professorships and chairs, syllabi and textbooks so that published works would demonstrate the humanistic ideal of science and scholarship.

Although the initial focus of the humanist scholars in the university was the discovery, exposition and insertion of ancient texts and languages into the university, and the ideas of those texts into society generally, their influence was ultimately quite progressive. The emergence of classical texts brought new ideas and lead to a more creative university climate (as the notable list of scholars above attests to). A focus on knowledge coming from self, from the human, has a direct implication for new forms of scholarship and instruction, and was the foundation for what is commonly known as the humanities. This disposition toward knowledge manifested in not simply the translation and propagation of ancient texts, but also their adaptation and expansion. For instance, Vesalius was imperative for advocating the use of Galen, but he also invigorated this text with experimentation, disagreements and further research. The propagation of these texts, especially within the universities, was greatly aided by the emergence of the printing press and the beginning of the use of the vernacular, which allowed for the printing of relatively large texts at reasonable prices.

Examining the influence of humanism on scholars in medicine, mathematics, astronomy and physics may suggest that humanism and universities were a strong impetus for the scientific revolution. Although the connection between humanism and the scientific discovery may very well have begun within the confines of the university, the connection has been commonly perceived as having been severed by the changing nature of science during the scientific revolution. Historians such as Richard Westfall have argued that the overt traditionalism of universities inhibited attempts to re-conceptualize nature and knowledge and caused an indelible tension between universities and scientists. This resistance to changes in science may have been a significant factor in driving many scientists away from the university and toward private benefactors, usually in princely courts, and associations with newly forming scientific societies.

Other historians find incongruity in the proposition that the very place where the vast number of the scholars that influenced the scientific revolution received their education should also be the place that inhibits their research and the advancement of science. In fact, more than 80% of the European scientists between 1450-1650 included in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography were university trained, of which approximately 45% held university posts. It was the case that the academic foundations remaining from the Middle Ages were stable, and they did provide for an environment that fostered considerable growth and development. There was considerable reluctance on the part of universities to relinquish the symmetry and comprehensiveness provided by the Aristotelian system, which was effective as a coherent system for understanding and interpreting the world. However, university professors still utilized some autonomy, at least in the sciences, to choose epistemological foundations and methods. For instance, Melanchthon and his disciples at University of Wittenberg were instrumental for integrating Copernican mathematical constructs into astronomical debate and instruction. Another example was the short-lived but fairly rapid adoption of Cartesian epistemology and methodology in European universities, and the debates surrounding that adoption, which led to more mechanistic approaches to scientific problems as well as demonstrated an openness to change. There are many examples which belie the commonly perceived intransigence of universities. Although universities may have been slow to accept new sciences and methodologies as they emerged, when they did accept new ideas it helped to convey legitimacy and respectability, and supported the scientific changes through providing a stable environment for instruction and material resources.

Regardless of the way the tension between universities, individual scientists, and the scientific revolution itself is perceived, there was a discernible impact on the way that university education was constructed. Aristotelian epistemology provided a coherent framework not simply for knowledge and knowledge construction, but also for the training of scholars within the higher education setting. The creation of new scientific constructs during the scientific revolution, and the epistemological challenges that were inherent within this creation, initiated the idea of both the autonomy of science and the hierarchy of the disciplines. Instead of entering higher education to become a “general scholar” immersed in becoming proficient in the entire curriculum, there emerged a type of scholar that put science first and viewed it as a vocation in itself. The divergence between those focused on science and those still entrenched in the idea of a general scholar exacerbated the epistemological tensions that were already beginning to emerge.

Ohio University, the first university in the American mid-west, in the autumn

The epistemological tensions between scientists and universities were also heightened by the economic realities of research during this time, as individual scientists, associations and universities were vying for limited resources. There was also competition from the formation of new colleges funded by private benefactors and designed to provide free education to the public, or established by local governments to provide a knowledge hungry populace with an alternative to traditional universities. Even when universities supported new scientific endeavors, and the university provided foundational training and authority for the research and conclusions, they could not compete with the resources available through private benefactors.

By the end of the early modern period, the structure and orientation of higher education had changed in ways that are eminently recognizable for the modern context. Aristotle was no longer a force providing the epistemological and methodological focus for universities and a more mechanistic orientation was emerging. The hierarchical place of theological knowledge had for the most part been displaced and the humanities had become a fixture, and a new openness was beginning to take hold in the construction and dissemination of knowledge that were to become imperative for the formation of the modern state.

Modern universities

The tower of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, a German technical university, founded in the 19th century

By the 18th century, universities published their own research journals and by the 19th century, the German and the French university models had arisen. The German, or Humboldtian model, was conceived by Wilhelm von Humboldt and based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas pertaining to the importance of freedom, seminars, and laboratories in universities.[citation needed] The French university model involved strict discipline and control over every aspect of the university.

Until the 19th century, religion played a significant role in university curriculum; however, the role of religion in research universities decreased in the 19th century, and by the end of the 19th century, the German university model had spread around the world. Universities concentrated on science in the 19th and 20th centuries and became increasingly accessible to the masses. In Britain, the move from Industrial Revolution to modernity saw the arrival of new civic universities with an emphasis on science and engineering, a movement initiated in 1960 by Sir Keith Murray (chairman of the University Grants Committee) and Sir Samuel Curran, with the formation of the University of Strathclyde. The British also established universities worldwide, and higher education became available to the masses not only in Europe.

In 1963, the Robbins Report on universities in the United Kingdom concluded that such institutions should have four main "objectives essential to any properly balanced system: instruction in skills; the promotion of the general powers of the mind so as to produce not mere specialists but rather cultivated men and women; to maintain research in balance with teaching, since teaching should not be separated from the advancement of learning and the search for truth; and to transmit a common culture and common standards of citizenship."

National universities

A national university is generally a university created or run by a national state but at the same time represents a state autonomic institution which functions as a completely independent body inside of the same state. Some national universities are closely associated with national cultural or political aspirations, for instance the National University of Ireland in the early days of Irish independence collected a large amount of information on the Irish language and Irish culture. Reforms in Argentina were the result of the University Revolution of 1918 and its posterior reforms by incorporating values that sought for a more equal and laic higher education system.

Intergovernmental universities

Universities created by bilateral or multilateral treaty between states are intergovernmental. Such as Academy of European Law offering training in European law to lawyers, judges, barristers, solicitors, in-house counsel and academics. EUCLID (Pôle Universitaire Euclide, Euclid University) is chartered as a university and umbrella organization dedicated to sustainable development in signatory countries and United Nations University efforts to resolve the pressing global problems that are the concern of the United Nations, its Peoples and Member States. The European University Institute, a post-graduate university specialised in the social sciences, is officially an intergovernmental organisation, set up by the member states of the European Union.

Organization

The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.

Although each institution is organized differently, nearly all universities have a board of trustees; a president, chancellor, or rector; at least one vice president, vice-chancellor, or vice-rector; and deans of various divisions. Universities are generally divided into a number of academic departments, schools or faculties. Public university systems are ruled over by government-run higher education boards. They review financial requests and budget proposals and then allocate funds for each university in the system. They also approve new programs of instruction and cancel or make changes in existing programs. In addition, they plan for the further coordinated growth and development of the various institutions of higher education in the state or country. However, many public universities in the world have a considerable degree of financial, research and pedagogical autonomy. Private universities are privately funded and generally have broader independence from state policies. However, they may have less independence from business corporations depending on the source of their finances.

Universities around the world

The funding and organization of universities varies widely between different countries around the world. In some countries universities are predominantly funded by the state, while in others funding may come from donors or from fees which students attending the university must pay. In some countries the vast majority of students attend university in their local town, while in other countries universities attract students from all over the world, and may provide university accommodation for their students.

Classification

The definition of a university varies widely even within some countries. For example, there is no nationally standardized definition of the term in the United States although the term has traditionally been used to designate research institutions and was once reserved for research doctorate-granting institutions. Some states, such as Massachusetts, will only grant a school "university status" if it grants at least two doctoral degrees. In the United Kingdom, the Privy Council is responsible for approving the use of the word "university" in the title of an institution, under the terms of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. In India, a new tag deemed universities has been created for high performing universities, giving them additional autonomy. Through this provision many universities sprung up in India, which are commercial in nature and have been established just to exploit the demand of higher education.

Colloquial usage

Colloquially, the term university may be used to describe a phase in one's life: "When I was at university..." (in the United States and Ireland, college is often used instead: "When I was in college..."; see the college article for further discussion). In Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, Nigeria, the Netherlands and the German-speaking countries university is often contracted to uni.[citation needed] In New Zealand and in South Africa it is sometimes called "varsity" (although this has become uncommon in New Zealand in recent years). "Varsity" was also common usage in the UK in the 19th century.[citation needed]

Cost

Many students look to get 'student grants' to cover the cost of university. In 2012, the average outstanding student loan balance per borrower in the United States is $23,300 USD. In many countries, costs are anticipated to rise for students as a result of decreased national or state funding given to public universities.

There are some big exceptions on tuition fees. In many European countries, it is possible to study without tuition fees. Public universities in Nordic countries were entirely without tuition fees until the latter part of the 2000. Denmark, Sweden and Finland then moved to put in place tuition fees for foreign students. But still, citizens of EU and EEA member states and citizens from Switzerland are exempted from tuitions fees and the amount of public grants granted to promising foreign students was increased to offset some of the impact.

See also

 

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