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University of San Clemente
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employers are working their employees harder, not smarter.
- David Coates"
magic formula that successful businesses have discovered
treat customers like guests and
employees like people.
--Thomas J. Peters"
the end, all business operations
can be reduced to three words: people, product and profits.
Unless you've got a good team, you can't do much with
the other two. --Lee Iacocca"
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The University of San Clemente its not about a
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the University of San Clemente we are using technology
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Seminars, and Learn By Doing
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base in a matter of hours through
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session like a workshop. LEARN
BY DOING! involves in the job
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Training and Certification
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TRAINING I EVER ATTENDED!"
the best training I have ever attended. My professor
was a fabulous instructor. His cutting edge
knowledge and information made learning fun.
Time flew by, left me wanting more."
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involve extensive learning and study.
Several hours of classroom activity
is common. Each workshop has structure
and may include presentations, notes,
and a workbook. Workshops are practical,
effective, completely current and comprehensiv
as well as.professionally rewarding
and stimulating. Instructors include
outstanding faculty with prominent credentials
who are also excellent presenters. Each
workshop is rigorous, thorough...and
A comprehensive listing
of current workshops is located through
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of continuing business offerings are
Your Business Plan (BYBP)
Have you created a business
plan? Is your business plan up-to-date?
If you have never created one or if
your plan is more than a year old without
being reviewed or your business or business
methods have changed, you need to do
a business plan.
have our own emphasis on building a
business plan, focused on answering
the questions that help you to create
the plan that says what you want it
to say and does what you want it to
accomplish. Our method will provide
you and your company with the unique
document specific to your company needs.
Your Marketing Plan (BYMP)
The best marketing and
sales efforts happen when there is a
concept and an idea, a plan, as to how
marketing plan spells out how you bring
your offerings to clients and customers
in an organized fashion. You do this
because marketing is communicating and
educating, not just advertising.
Your Short-Term Plan (BYSP)
You will step through
a long-term view that will then break
into short-term goals. Your workshop
instructor will assist you to identify
the steps that will take your business
from where it is now to where you want
it to be. In the process, you will learn
how long that is going to take.
provide a comprehensive foundation in
critical subjects. Often presented in
shorter time periods, seminars grow
a knowledge base one topic at a time.
Seminars are designed for both novice
and experienced professionals and are
taught by knowledgeable and experienced
A comprehensive listing of current seminars
is located through the click-able link
in the title above.
Examples of continuing business offerings
are featured below.
Business seminars are learning events
that build your knowledge base. They are
available at low cost and may be free
if sponsored. This opportunity to learn
is accompanied by an opportunity to network
and interact with others.
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than a workshop or seminar, Professional
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training may involve hands-on as well
as presentation or informational instruction;
testing the knowledge you have acquired
through this course work will qualify
you to receive the appropriate certificate.
examples may include but not be limited
to the following examples:
Food Health and Safety Certification
Safe Driving Instruction
Hospitality Staff Training
Wait Staff Training
Companion Care Training and Certification
listing of present University of San Clemente
Professional Training and Certification
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All offerings are comprised of planned and organized
instruction which is presented over the specified
and defined period of time. Participants are
encouraged to register for the entire programs,
workshops, or courses, however registrations
for only one or two of the offerings are accepted.
All instruction and reference materials were
developed so they can be applied in the everyday
workplace. Participants learn the the course
and can apply it within their own experience.
provided learning and materials are specially
prepared for the offerings and are current.
The materials are provided to participants and
students serve as valuable reference manuals
As may be pertinent, a Certificate may be awarded
when a participant completes their work and
passes the testing. The certificates may be
mailed after the end of the program.
All seminar, workshop, and course instructors
are leaders and are qualified experts who have
extraordinary backgrounds, extensive practical
experience, and a demonstrated ability to teach
the material in an interesting manner.
Faculty members encourage questions from participants.
All your questions will be answered during the
ample time provided during sessions, at breaks,
lunches and after the sessions. The collegial
atmosphere fosters the sharing of ideas and
experiences among participants.
Participants tell us that this program improves
on-the-job and in-life effectiveness, and increases
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What People are
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was extremely happy with the workshop presenters.
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the information was the most thorough and comprehensive."
instructor was extremely dynamic in her presentation
skills and seemed to take a vested interest
in our learning the information. I was very
impressed with her background and appreciated
hearing her personal experiences which help
to bring the information to life!"
WORTH TIME AND MONEY!"
instructors were very informative and presented
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Questions? Please give us a call:
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university is an institution
education and research
which grants academic
degrees in a variety of subjects and provides
education and postgraduate
education. The word "university" is derived
from the Latin
universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which
roughly means "community of teachers and scholars."
of a university lecture in the 1350s
word "universitas" refers in general to "a
number of persons associated into one body, a society,
company, community, guild, corporation, etc."
At the time of the emergence of urban town life
specialised "associations of students and teachers
with collective legal rights usually guaranteed
by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the
towns in which they were located" came to be denominated
by this general term. Like other guilds, they were
self-regulating and determined the qualifications
of their members.
The original Latin word referred to degree-granting
institutions of learning in Western
Europe, where this form of legal organisation
was prevalent, and from where the institution spread
around the world. For non-related educational institutions
of antiquity which did not stand in the tradition
of the university and to which the term is only
loosely and retrospectively applied, see ancient
important idea in the definition of a university
is the notion of academic
freedom. The first documentary evidence of this
comes from early in the life of the first university.
of Bologna adopted an academic charter, the
in 1158 or 1155,
which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar
to unhindered passage in the interests of education.
Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic
This is now widely recognised internationally -
on 18 September 1988 430 university rectors signed
marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna
Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing
from all parts of the world.
higher education took place for hundreds of years
schools or monastic
schools (Scholae monasticae), in which
classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners
of the later university at many places dates back
to the 6th century AD.
The earliest universities were developed under the
aegis of the Latin
Church, usually from cathedral schools or by
bull as studia
generalia (n.b. The development of cathedral
schools into universities actually appears to be
quite rare, with the University of Paris being an
exception — see Leff, Paris and Oxford Universities),
later they were also founded by Kings (University
of Naples Federico II, Charles
University in Prague, Jagiellonian
University in Kraków) or municipal administrations
of Cologne, University
of Erfurt). In the early
medieval period, most new universities were
founded from pre-existing schools, usually when
these schools were deemed to have become primarily
sites of higher education. Many historians state
that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation
of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries.
first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild
structure were the University
of Bologna (1088), the University
of Paris (c. 1150, later associated with the
of Oxford (1167), the University
of Palencia (1208), the University
of Cambridge (1209), the University
of Salamanca (1218), the University
of Montpellier (1220), the University
of Padua (1222), the University
of Naples Federico II (1224), the University
of Toulouse (1229),
of Siena (1240).
University of Bologna began as a law school teaching
gentium or Roman
law of peoples which was in demand across Europe
for those defending the right of incipient nations
against empire and church. Bologna’s special claim
Mater Studiorum is based on its autonomy,
its awarding of degrees, and other structural arrangements,
making it the oldest continuously operating institution
independent of kings, emperors or any kind of direct
conventional date of 1088, or 1087 according to
records when a certain Irnerius
commences teaching Emperor Justinian’s 6th century
codification of Roman law, the Corpus
Iuris Civilis, recently discovered at Pisa.
Lay students arrived in the city from many lands
entering into a contract to gain this knowledge,
organising themselves into ‘Learning Nations’ of
Hungarians, Greeks, North Africans, Arabs, Franks,
Germans, Iberians etc. The students “had all the
power … and dominated the masters”.
Europe, young men proceeded to university when they
had completed their study of the trivium–the
preparatory arts of grammar,
of the University of Oxford for the history
of how the trivium and quadrivium developed in relation
to degrees, especially in anglophone
became popular all over Europe, as rulers and city
governments began to create them to satisfy a European
thirst for knowledge, and the belief that society
would benefit from the scholarly expertise generated
from these institutions. Princes and leaders of
city governments perceived the potential benefit
of having a scholarly expertise develop with the
ability to address difficult problems and achieve
desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential
to this understanding of the possible utility of
universities as well as the revival of interest
in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts.
rediscovery of Aristotle's
works - more than 3000 pages of it would eventually
be translated - fuelled a spirit of inquiry into
natural processes that had already begun to emerge
in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that
these works represented one of the most important
document discoveries in Western intellectual history.
Richard Dales, for instance, calls the discovery
of Aristotle's works “a turning point in the history
of Western thought."
After Aristotle re-emerged, a community of scholars,
primarily communicating in Latin, accelerated the
process and practice of attempting to reconcile
the thoughts of Greek antiquity, and especially
ideas related to understanding the natural world,
with those of the church. The efforts of this “scholasticism”
were focused on applying Aristotelian logic and
thoughts about natural processes to biblical passages
and attempting to prove the viability of those passages
through reason. This became the primary mission
of lecturers, and the expectation of students.
university culture developed differently in northern
Europe than it did in the south, although the northern
(primarily Germany, France and Great Britain) and
southern universities (primarily Italy) did have
many elements in common. Latin was the language
of the university, used for all texts, lectures,
and examinations. Professors lectured on the books
of Aristotle for logic, natural
philosophy, and metaphysics;
were used for medicine. Outside of these commonalities,
great differences separated north and south, primarily
in subject matter. Italian universities focused
on law and medicine, while the northern universities
focused on the arts and theology. There were distinct
differences in the quality of instruction in these
areas which were congruent with their focus, so
scholars would travel north or south based on their
interests and means. There was also a difference
in the types of degrees awarded at these universities.
English, French and German universities usually
awarded bachelor's degrees, with the exception of
degrees in theology, for which the doctorate was
more common. Italian universities awarded primarily
doctorates. The distinction can be attributed to
the intent of the degree holder after graduation
– in the north the focus tended to be on acquiring
teaching positions, while in the south students
often went on to professional positions.
The structure of Northern Universities tended to
be modeled after the system of faculty governance
developed at the University of Paris. Southern universities
tended to be patterned after the student-controlled
model begun at the University of Bologna.
H. Green and Hossein
Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century,
Makdisi and others,
however, argue that the European university has
no parallel in the medieval Islamic world.
Courtenay et al. partially critique this view by
stating similarities between madrasahs and southern
Other scholars regard the university as uniquely
European in origin and characteristics.
scholars (including Makdisi) have argued that early
medieval universities were influenced by the religious
of Sicily, and the Middle East (during the Crusades).
Other scholars see this argument as overstated.
Modern period (approximately late 1400s to 1800),
the universities of Europe would see a tremendous
amount of growth, productivity and innovative research.
At the end of the Middle Ages, about 400 years after
the first university was founded, there were twenty-nine
universities spread throughout Europe. In the 15th
century, twenty-eight new ones were created, with
another eighteen added between 1500 and 1625.
This pace continued until by the end of the 18th
century there were approximately 143 universities
in Europe and Eastern Europe, with the highest concentrations
in the German Empire (34), Italian countries (26),
France (25), and Spain (23) – this was close to
a 500% increase over the number of universities
toward the end of the Middle Ages. This number does
not include the numerous universities that disappeared,
or institutions that merged with other universities
during this time.
It should be noted that the identification of a
university was not necessarily obvious during the
Early Modern period, as the term is applied to a
burgeoning number of institutions. In fact, the
term “university” was not always used to designate
a higher education institution. In Mediterranean
countries, the term studium
generale was still often used, while “Academy”
was common in Northern European countries.
propagation of universities was not necessarily
a steady progression, as the seventeenth century
was rife with events that adversely affected university
expansion. Many wars, and especially the Thirty
Years' War, disrupted the university landscape
throughout Europe at different times. War, plague,
and changes in religious power and structure often
adversely affected the societies that provided support
for universities. Internal strife within the universities
themselves, such as student brawling and absentee
professors, acted to destabilize these institutions
as well. Universities were also reluctant to give
up older curricula, and the continued reliance on
the works of Aristotle defied contemporary advancements
in science and the arts.
This era was also affected by the rise of the nation-state.
As universities increasingly came under state control,
or formed under the auspices of the state, the faculty
governance model (begun by the University of Paris)
became more and more prominent. Although the older
student-controlled universities still existed, they
slowly started to move toward this structural organization.
Control of universities still tended to be independent,
although university leadership was increasingly
appointed by the state.
the structural model provided by the University
of Paris, where student members are controlled by
faculty “masters,” provided a standard for universities,
the application of this model took at least three
different forms. There were universities that had
a system of faculties whose teaching was centralized
around a very specific curriculum; this model tended
to train specialists. There was a collegiate or
tutorial model based on the system at University
of Oxford where teaching and organization was
decentralized and knowledge was more of a generalist
nature. There were also universities that combined
these models, using the collegiate model but having
a centralized organization.
Modern universities initially continued the curriculum
and research of the Middle Ages: natural
philosophy, logic, medicine, theology, mathematics,
astronomy (and astrology), law, grammar and rhetoric.
Aristotle was prevalent throughout the curriculum,
while medicine also depended on Galen and Arabic
scholarship. The importance of humanism for changing
this state-of-affairs cannot be underestimated.
Once humanist professors joined the university faculty,
they began to transform the study of grammar and
rhetoric through the studia
humanitatis. Humanist professors focused on
the ability of students to write and speak with
distinction, to translate and interpret classical
texts, and to live honorable lives.
Other scholars within the university were affected
by the humanist approaches to learning and their
linguistic expertise in relation to ancient texts,
as well as the ideology that advocated the ultimate
importance of those texts.
Professors of medicine such as Niccolò
Linacre and William Cop were often trained in
and taught from a humanist perspective as well as
translated important ancient medical texts. The
critical mindset imparted by humanism was imperative
for changes in universities and scholarship. For
Vesalius was educated in a humanist fashion
before producing a translation of Galen, whose ideas
he verified through his own dissections. In law,
Andreas Alciatus infused the Corpus
Juris with a humanist perspective, while
Cujas humanist writings were paramount to his
reputation as a jurist. Philipp
Melanchthon cited the works of Erasmus
as a highly influential guide for connecting theology
back to original texts, which was important for
the reform at Protestant universities.
Galilei, who taught at the Universities of Pisa
Luther, who taught at the University
of Wittenberg (as did Melanchthon), also had
humanist training. The task of the humanists was
to slowly permeate the university; to increase the
humanist presence in professorships and chairs,
syllabi and textbooks so that published works would
demonstrate the humanistic ideal of science and
the initial focus of the humanist scholars in the
university was the discovery, exposition and insertion
of ancient texts and languages into the university,
and the ideas of those texts into society generally,
their influence was ultimately quite progressive.
The emergence of classical texts brought new ideas
and lead to a more creative university climate (as
the notable list of scholars above attests to).
A focus on knowledge coming from self, from the
human, has a direct implication for new forms of
scholarship and instruction, and was the foundation
for what is commonly known as the humanities. This
disposition toward knowledge manifested in not simply
the translation and propagation of ancient texts,
but also their adaptation and expansion. For instance,
Vesalius was imperative for advocating the use of
Galen, but he also invigorated this text with experimentation,
disagreements and further research.
The propagation of these texts, especially within
the universities, was greatly aided by the emergence
of the printing press and the beginning of the use
of the vernacular, which allowed for the printing
of relatively large texts at reasonable prices.
the influence of humanism on scholars in medicine,
mathematics, astronomy and physics may suggest that
humanism and universities were a strong impetus
for the scientific revolution. Although the connection
between humanism and the scientific discovery may
very well have begun within the confines of the
university, the connection has been commonly perceived
as having been severed by the changing nature of
science during the scientific revolution. Historians
such as Richard Westfall have argued that the overt
traditionalism of universities inhibited attempts
to re-conceptualize nature and knowledge and caused
an indelible tension between universities and scientists.
This resistance to changes in science may have been
a significant factor in driving many scientists
away from the university and toward private benefactors,
usually in princely courts, and associations with
newly forming scientific societies.
historians find incongruity in the proposition that
the very place where the vast number of the scholars
that influenced the scientific revolution received
their education should also be the place that inhibits
their research and the advancement of science. In
fact, more than 80% of the European scientists between
1450-1650 included in the Dictionary of Scientific
Biography were university trained, of which approximately
45% held university posts.
It was the case that the academic foundations remaining
from the Middle Ages were stable, and they did provide
for an environment that fostered considerable growth
and development. There was considerable reluctance
on the part of universities to relinquish the symmetry
and comprehensiveness provided by the Aristotelian
system, which was effective as a coherent system
for understanding and interpreting the world. However,
university professors still utilized some autonomy,
at least in the sciences, to choose epistemological
foundations and methods. For instance, Melanchthon
and his disciples at University of Wittenberg were
instrumental for integrating Copernican mathematical
constructs into astronomical debate and instruction.
Another example was the short-lived but fairly rapid
adoption of Cartesian epistemology and methodology
in European universities, and the debates surrounding
that adoption, which led to more mechanistic approaches
to scientific problems as well as demonstrated an
openness to change. There are many examples which
belie the commonly perceived intransigence of universities.
Although universities may have been slow to accept
new sciences and methodologies as they emerged,
when they did accept new ideas it helped to convey
legitimacy and respectability, and supported the
scientific changes through providing a stable environment
for instruction and material resources.
of the way the tension between universities, individual
scientists, and the scientific revolution itself
is perceived, there was a discernible impact on
the way that university education was constructed.
Aristotelian epistemology provided a coherent framework
not simply for knowledge and knowledge construction,
but also for the training of scholars within the
higher education setting. The creation of new scientific
constructs during the scientific revolution, and
the epistemological challenges that were inherent
within this creation, initiated the idea of both
the autonomy of science and the hierarchy of the
disciplines. Instead of entering higher education
to become a “general scholar” immersed in becoming
proficient in the entire curriculum, there emerged
a type of scholar that put science first and viewed
it as a vocation in itself. The divergence between
those focused on science and those still entrenched
in the idea of a general scholar exacerbated the
epistemological tensions that were already beginning
epistemological tensions between scientists and
universities were also heightened by the economic
realities of research during this time, as individual
scientists, associations and universities were vying
for limited resources. There was also competition
from the formation of new colleges funded by private
benefactors and designed to provide free education
to the public, or established by local governments
to provide a knowledge hungry populace with an alternative
to traditional universities.
Even when universities supported new scientific
endeavors, and the university provided foundational
training and authority for the research and conclusions,
they could not compete with the resources available
through private benefactors.
the end of the early modern period, the structure
and orientation of higher education had changed
in ways that are eminently recognizable for the
modern context. Aristotle was no longer a force
providing the epistemological and methodological
focus for universities and a more mechanistic orientation
was emerging. The hierarchical place of theological
knowledge had for the most part been displaced and
the humanities had become a fixture, and a new openness
was beginning to take hold in the construction and
dissemination of knowledge that were to become imperative
for the formation of the modern state.
the 18th century, universities published their own
journals and by the 19th century, the German
and the French university models had arisen. The
German, or Humboldtian model, was conceived by Wilhelm
von Humboldt and based on Friedrich
Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas pertaining to
the importance of freedom,
needed] The French university
model involved strict discipline and control over
every aspect of the university.
the 19th century, religion
played a significant role in university curriculum;
however, the role of religion in research universities
decreased in the 19th century, and by the end of
the 19th century, the German university model had
spread around the world. Universities concentrated
on science in the 19th and 20th centuries and became
increasingly accessible to the masses. In Britain,
the move from Industrial
Revolution to modernity
saw the arrival of new civic universities with an
emphasis on science
a movement initiated in 1960 by Sir Keith Murray
(chairman of the University Grants Committee) and
Samuel Curran, with the formation of the University
The British also established universities worldwide,
education became available to the masses not
only in Europe.
1963, the Robbins
Report on universities in the United
Kingdom concluded that such institutions should
have four main "objectives essential to any properly
balanced system: instruction in skills; the promotion
of the general powers of the mind so as to produce
not mere specialists but rather cultivated men and
women; to maintain research in balance with teaching,
since teaching should not be separated from the
advancement of learning and the search for truth;
and to transmit a common culture and common standards
university is generally a university created
or run by a national state but at the same time
represents a state autonomic institution which functions
as a completely independent body inside of the same
state. Some national universities are closely associated
with national cultural
aspirations, for instance the National
University of Ireland in the early days of Irish
independence collected a large amount of information
on the Irish
language and Irish
culture. Reforms in Argentina were the result
of the University
Revolution of 1918 and its posterior reforms
by incorporating values that sought for a more equal
and laic higher education system.
created by bilateral or multilateral treaty between
states are intergovernmental.
Such as Academy
of European Law offering training in European
law to lawyers, judges, barristers, solicitors,
in-house counsel and academics. EUCLID
(Pôle Universitaire Euclide, Euclid University)
is chartered as a university and umbrella organization
dedicated to sustainable development in signatory
countries and United
Nations University efforts to resolve the pressing
global problems that are the concern of the United
Nations, its Peoples and Member States. The European
University Institute, a post-graduate university
specialised in the social sciences, is officially
an intergovernmental organisation, set up by the
member states of the European
each institution is organized differently, nearly
all universities have a board of trustees; a president,
at least one vice president, vice-chancellor, or
vice-rector; and deans of various divisions. Universities
are generally divided into a number of academic
departments, schools or faculties.
university systems are ruled over by government-run
higher education boards. They review financial requests
and budget proposals and then allocate funds for
each university in the system. They also approve
new programs of instruction and cancel or make changes
in existing programs. In addition, they plan for
the further coordinated growth and development of
the various institutions of higher education in
the state or country. However, many public universities
in the world have a considerable degree of financial,
research and pedagogical
universities are privately funded and generally
have broader independence from state policies. However,
they may have less independence from business corporations
depending on the source of their finances.
around the world
funding and organization of universities varies
widely between different countries around the world.
In some countries universities are predominantly
funded by the state, while in others funding may
come from donors or from fees which students attending
the university must pay. In some countries the vast
majority of students attend university in their
local town, while in other countries universities
attract students from all over the world, and may
provide university accommodation for their students.
definition of a university varies widely even within
some countries. For example, there is no nationally
standardized definition of the term in the United
States although the term has traditionally been
used to designate research
institutions and was once reserved for research
Some states, such as Massachusetts,
will only grant a school "university status" if
it grants at least two doctoral
In the United Kingdom, the Privy
Council is responsible for approving the use
of the word "university" in the title of an institution,
under the terms of the Further
and Higher Education Act 1992.
In India, a new tag deemed
universities has been created for high performing
universities, giving them additional autonomy. Through
this provision many universities sprung up in India,
which are commercial in nature and have been established
just to exploit the demand of higher education.
the term university may be used to describe
a phase in one's life: "When I was at university..."
(in the United States and Ireland, college
is often used instead: "When I was in college...";
see the college
article for further discussion). In Australia, New
Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, Nigeria, the
Netherlands and the German-speaking
countries university is often contracted
needed] In New Zealand and
in South Africa it is sometimes called "varsity"
(although this has become uncommon in New Zealand
in recent years). "Varsity" was also common usage
in the UK in the 19th century.[citation
students look to get 'student grants' to cover the
cost of university. In 2012, the average outstanding
student loan balance per borrower in the United
States is $23,300 USD.
In many countries, costs are anticipated to rise
for students as a result of decreased national or
state funding given to public universities.
are some big exceptions on tuition fees. In many
European countries, it is possible to study without
tuition fees. Public universities in Nordic
countries were entirely without tuition fees
until the latter part of the 2000. Denmark, Sweden
and Finland then moved to put in place tuition fees
for foreign students. But still, citizens of EU
and EEA member states and citizens from Switzerland
are exempted from tuitions fees and the amount of
public grants granted to promising foreign students
was increased to offset some of the impact.
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